If 120/240 volts or 240 volts is supplied by a circuit, the NEC mandates for it to be protected by a GFCI breaker. In most cases, they are usually double pole breakers. They do not require the neutral on the load side.
But, how does a 240V GFCI breaker work without a neutral?
In such a case, where the appliance requires such great power, it will mostly come with its separate ground terminal. So, two out of three terminals will be used to accept power from the breaker, and the ground terminal will be used to let it flow back.
In this article, I’ll go over the basics of how a 240V GFCI breaker can work without a neutral.
What is 240V Double Pole GFCI Breakers?
A double pole breaker is typically used with either 120-volt or 240-volt circuits which are rated to use for 20-60 amps. Double pole GFCI breakers contain two hot wires and a neutral wire.
In a double pole breaker, both the switches are connected. This means, that if one circuit trips, both circuits will be cut off from power.
Double pole GFCI breakers are usually used with high-demanding appliances and circuits which can supply 120 volts through two terminals or 240 volts at once. These appliances include air conditioners, spas, dryers, etc.
Does a 240v GFCI breaker need a neutral? Not necessarily. If a short circuit occurs on the wires of either of the poles, both will trip with this type of connection. Double-pole breakers are commonly used to serve a single 240-volt circuit, but they can also serve two separate 120-volt circuits.
Your installation will depend on which type of circuit you wish to serve. And the type of appliance that you wish to run on that circuit. For example, if you wish to install a spa, it will require both of the hot wires to operate properly.
Different Parts of a Double Pole GFCI
How does a 240V GFCI breaker work without a neutral? You first have to know the different parts and terminals of a double pole breaker. As it will provide you with the basic knowledge needed to understand the flow of current.
A double pole GFCI can be broken down into 6 different key parts. The power entrance, the neutral pigtail wire, 2 hot terminals, 1 neutral terminal, and the switch.
Once a GFCI is fitted to the main panel, the slots on the back, smoothly slide on your circuit panel. Electricity will flow in from the grid in either 120/240V supply or pure 240V. The neutral pigtail can either be connected to the neutral bus or directly to the ground itself. It will depend on the type of your installation.
Now for the output. You will get two hot wires and one neutral wire. The neutral wire is oftentimes not used in many cases. Will a 240 volt GFCI breaker work without a neutral? Yes, it certainly will. Now that you have a clear understanding of the basic concepts, I will explain the workings in detail in the next segment.
Wire 240V GFCI Breaker without Neutral:
There are various configurations that you might use which do not require the use of the neutral terminal. I will go over these configurations below.
As can be seen in the first configuration (Fig 3), the appliance will be directly connected to the ground bar. Hence the neutral wire would not be needed to loop the electricity back. The pigtail neutral of the GFCI breaker will be connected to the neutral bar in this configuration.
In the second configuration (Fig 4), the appliance will remain with the previous connections. But the pigtail neutral wire will be connected to the ground bus instead of the neutral bar, which was the method for the previous configuration.
In the final configuration (Fig 5), the main panel will be connected to both the ground bus and the neutral bar. The neutral pigtail will also be connected to the neutral bar in this scenario. The application will be directly grounded, thus rejecting the use of the neutral wire of the GFCI breaker.
These are the three most common configurations one can use, which will let them install a 240V GFCI breaker without a neutral.
So, how does a 240V GFCI breaker work without a neutral? Throughout this article, I have discussed and explained all the different configurations through which a 240V GFCI breaker can work without a neutral.
I hope it has given you a clear understanding of the inner workings of a 240V GFCI and helped solve any sort of confusion.